So....here you go:
Galectin's GR-MD-02 Positive in Phase Ib Study With Keytruda
Why Yervoy's Resurgence Will Gain Momentum
Adoptive transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in melanoma: a viable treatment option
Lifestyle Modifications and Policy Implications for Primary and Secondary Cancer Prevention: Diet, Exercise, Sun Safety, and Alcohol Reduction
New Era in the Management of Melanoma Brain Metastases
|Combination Immunotherapy Development in Melanoma|
Practice-Changing Developments in Stage III Melanoma: Surgery, Adjuvant Targeted Therapy, and Immunotherapy
Patterns of Response and Progression to Immunotherapy
Emerging Strategies in Systemic Therapy for the Treatment of Melanoma
Challenging Cases: Management of Immune-Related Toxicity
Completion lymph node dissection (CLND) for sentinel lymph node (SLN)-positive melanoma patients has been guideline-concordant standard of care since adoption of lymphatic mapping and SLN biopsy for the management of clinically node-negative melanoma patients more than 20 years ago. However, a trend for omission of CLND has been observed over the past decade, and we now have randomized, controlled clinical trial data to help guide treatment recommendations. Publication of these data prompted an American Society of Clinical Oncology-Society of Surgical Oncology 2018 clinical practice guideline update for these patients.
Systematic review of current evidence supports a selective, individualized approach to CLND for SLN-positive melanoma. For low-risk, low-volume micrometastatic disease, SLN biopsy may be both diagnostic and therapeutic, and close clinical follow-up with imaging or CLND are reasonable options for appropriately selected patients. For higher-risk patients, omission of CLND requires careful consideration of risks versus benefits, relevant histopathology, and individualized patient discussion. This should address patient comorbidities and life expectancy, the predicted likelihood of additional positive nodes, availability of imaging surveillance, likelihood of adherence to imaging and clinical follow-up, consequences of regional recurrence, and the prognostic value of complete nodal staging and its impact on adjuvant therapy recommendations or clinical trial participation. Data on long-term outcomes, cost, and patient-reported quality of life measures are not yet available.
Prognostic Value of Low Tumor Burden in Patients With Melanoma.
The therapeutic landscape for cutaneous melanoma has dramatically advanced in the last several years with the development, validation, and approval by the US Food and Drug Administration of several new therapies that have proven effective in treating metastatic disease. Considerable effort has been put into identifying prognostic and predictive markers of therapeutic response to better delineate the patient populations most likely to benefit from treatment. Baseline tumor burden has been described as a common clinical factor associated with treatment response: lower tumor burden at the time of therapeutic intervention is associated with improved responses and survival outcomes on several therapies. Some therapies have shown efficacy as adjuvant interventions in patients with subclinical disease following definitive treatment, further supporting their role in patients with minimal tumor burden. The increasing evidence that patients with lower tumor burden may be the ones who derive maximal benefit from several melanoma-directed therapies points toward the critical need for risk-tailored surveillance to permit early identification of melanoma metastasis in patients at high risk for recurrence.
Following melanoma excision, patients often receive sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for further staging. Limited data regarding predictors of SLNB positivity in thin melanoma are available. To evaluate predictors of SLNB positivity in thin melanoma. Patients with cutaneous melanoma, Breslow thickness great than/= to 1.00 mm who received a SLNB were identified from the National Cancer Database in the period from 2004-2014 (n=9,186). Predictors of SLNB positivity were analyzed using logistic regression. In a multivariate analysis, patients with age less than 60 and Breslow thickness greater than 0.8mm were at increased risk for positive SLN. Moreover, on multivariate analysis, presence dermal mitoses increased odds of SLN positivity by 95%, ulceration by 63% and Clark level IV-V by 48%. Patients without ulceration but with dermal mitoses had 92% increased SLN positivity. Limited survival data available. Younger age, Breslow thickness greater than 0.8 mm, presence of dermal mitoses, ulceration and Clark level IV-V are positive predictors of positive SLN. While the new AJCC system has removed dermal mitotic rate from staging, continued evaluation of dermal mitotic rate could be valuable for guiding surgical decision making about SLNB.
Fatal Toxic Effects Associated With Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are now a mainstay of cancer treatment. Although rare, fulminant and fatal toxic effects may complicate these otherwise transformative therapies; characterizing these events requires integration of global data. To determine the spectrum, timing, and clinical features of fatal ICI-associated toxic effects. We retrospectively queried a World Health Organization (WHO) pharmacovigilance database (Vigilyze) comprising more than 16 000 000 adverse drug reactions, and records from 7 academic centers. We performed a meta-analysis of published trials of anti-programmed death-1/ligand-1 (PD-1/PD-L1) and anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) to evaluate their incidence using data from large academic medical centers, global WHO pharmacovigilance data, and all published ICI clinical trials of patients with cancer treated with ICIs internationally.
Anti-CTLA-4 (ipilimumab or tremelimumab), anti-PD-1 (nivolumab, pembrolizumab), or anti-PD-L1 (atezolizumab, avelumab, durvalumab).
Timing, spectrum, outcomes, and incidence of ICI-associated toxic effects.
Internationally, 613 fatal ICI toxic events were reported from 2009 through January 2018 in Vigilyze. The spectrum differed widely between regimens: in a total of 193 anti-CTLA-4 deaths, most were usually from colitis (135 [70%]), whereas anti-PD-1/PD-L1-related fatalities were often from pneumonitis (333 [35%]), hepatitis (115 [22%]), and neurotoxic effects (50 [15%]). Combination PD-1/CTLA-4 deaths were frequently from colitis (32 [37%]) and myocarditis (22 [25%]). Fatal toxic effects typically occurred early after therapy initiation for combination therapy, anti-PD-1, and ipilimumab monotherapy (median 14.5, 40, and 40 days, respectively). Myocarditis had the highest fatality rate (52 [39.7%] of 131 reported cases), whereas endocrine events and colitis had only 2% to 5% reported fatalities; 10% to 17% of other organ-system toxic effects reported had fatal outcomes. Retrospective review of 3545 patients treated with ICIs from 7 academic centers revealed 0.6% fatality rates; cardiac and neurologic events were especially prominent (43%). Median time from symptom onset to death was 32 days. A meta-analysis of 112 trials involving 19 217 patients showed toxicity-related fatality rates of 0.36% (anti-PD-1), 0.38% (anti-PD-L1), 1.08% (anti-CTLA-4), and 1.23% (PD-1/PD-L1 plus CTLA-4).
In the largest evaluation of fatal ICI-associated toxic effects published to date to our knowledge, we observed early onset of death with varied causes and frequencies depending on therapeutic regimen. Clinicians across disciplines should be aware of these uncommon lethal complications.
Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of the Prognostic Significance of miRNAs in Melanoma Patients.